Secreted Kinases May Promote Malignancy

protein_secretion
Share

Protein kinases are enzymes that add phosphate groups onto specific amino acids on proteins. Most of these enzymes are active within cells. Kinases are often encoded by oncogenes, and aberrant activity of these regulatory enzymes is frequently associated with cancer. Data are emerging that kinases can also be released from cells. These secreted kinases can … Read moreSecreted Kinases May Promote Malignancy

Share

Challenges in Classifying Biology

Hawaiian_bobtail_squid
Share

There are multiple ways to categorize nearly everything in biology. The value of an individual categorization scheme depends on the perspective of the user. As Shirley Malcom (Director, Education and Human Resources Programs, AAAS) once said, “We [Biologists] are splitters not lumpers.” This need for classification makes consensus difficult, can limit our way of thinking, … Read moreChallenges in Classifying Biology

Share

The Central Role of Mitochondria in Red Blood Cells

Human_red_blood_cells
Share

Ferrochelatase in heme biosynthesis Ferrochelatase (FECH) is an enzyme found in mitochondria that adds iron ions (Fe2+) into protoporphyrin to produce heme (Figure 1). This biochemical reaction is critical for cell health.  The process is tightly controlled so that cells produce the amount of heme needed and do not accumulate too much of the heme … Read moreThe Central Role of Mitochondria in Red Blood Cells

Share