Cancerous tumors must evade immune destruction to survive. They can achieve this by preventing the immune cells from gaining access to the tumor (“immune cold”) or by tipping the balance of immunoactivating and immunosuppressing signals toward immunosuppression. Immunosuppression means that, even if the immune cells penetrate the tumor, they cannot kill the cancer. The cytotoxicity … Read moreIntratumor Immunotherapy Kills Injected and Distant Tumors
Some diseases arise because the immune system reacts with normal, healthy cells in the body. In other diseases, lack of an effective immune response contributes to the disease. Cancer cells escape attack by the immune system, in part, by producing a lot of the protein PD-L1 (Gough, 24 May 2017). PD-L1 binds and activates the … Read moreEngineering the Immune System to Treat Diabetes
A vaccine may be described as medicine that stimulates an immune response with a “memory.” Many people also consider a vaccine to be a medicine that prevents a disease caused by a pathogen. Indeed, the first vaccines were ones that prevented infectious diseases, such as polio and measles. Some vaccines have been so successful that … Read moreCan you be vaccinated against yourself?
Although genomic (DNA) and transcriptomic (messenger RNA) data are easier to collect and analyze, these are only two of the relevant types of “omic” data that are important for understanding disease and the response to treatments. Proteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic data are also contain information that can be used diagnostically, prognostically, in developing treatment … Read moreThe Power of Proteomics in Medicine
A Proteomic Approach to the Tumor Microenvironment An outstanding issue in treating solid cancers is understanding the complexity of this pathological tissue. Solid tumors are comprised not only of the cancer cells, but they also contain immune cells, cells that form blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, fibroblasts, and the stem cells that form the fibroblasts … Read moreSingle-Cell Proteomics Shines Light on the Complexity of Immune Cells in Solid Tumors