Engineering the Immune System to Treat Diabetes

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Some diseases arise because the immune system reacts with normal, healthy cells in the body. In other diseases, lack of an effective immune response contributes to the disease. Cancer cells escape attack by the immune system, in part, by producing a lot of the protein PD-L1 (Gough, 24 May 2017). PD-L1 binds and activates the … Read moreEngineering the Immune System to Treat Diabetes

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GDF15: Heart Hormone, Appetite Suppressant, Marker of Neurodegenerative Disease

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Coordinating growth with heart health ensures that the heart can keep up with the demands placed on it by the body. A recent study (1) identified a molecule called growth differentiation factor 15 [GDF15, also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC1)] that was released from the heart that signals to the liver to inhibit … Read moreGDF15: Heart Hormone, Appetite Suppressant, Marker of Neurodegenerative Disease

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Bionic Organs with Silicon Nanopore Membranes

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One of the challenges to building artificial organs is finding or creating suitable materials for use in such devices. If the device contains living cells, then those cells need to receive nutrients from, exchange gases with, and send cellular waste products into blood. In addition, the cells should also respond appropriately to circulating regulatory signals, … Read moreBionic Organs with Silicon Nanopore Membranes

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