Making Immune “Cold” Tumors Hot

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A main goal of current research and clinical trials is to expand the number of patients that benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that combination therapies are the future for these immunotherapies in treating cancer. There are many clinical trials that combine an immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy (drugs that kill … Read moreMaking Immune “Cold” Tumors Hot

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Immunotherapy Antagonists and Agonists

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Some cancer immunotherapy drugs turn off a signaling pathway; others turn on a signaling pathway (1). FDA-approved immunotherapy drugs that target the PD-L1/PD-1 or CTLA-4/B-7 immune checkpoints function as antagonists to block immune signaling pathways. Investigational immunotherapy drugs that target GITRL/GITR function as agonists to activate an immune signaling pathway. Investigational drugs that target OX40L/OX40 … Read moreImmunotherapy Antagonists and Agonists

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Understanding Immune Checkpoint Pathways to Improve Patient Response

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Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the adaptive immune system will lead to better immunotherapies for cancer patients or patients with other diseases related to inappropriate immune responses. Two of the processes that inhibit T cell function are called immune checkpoint pathways. New research reveals that these pathways involve many cells of the … Read moreUnderstanding Immune Checkpoint Pathways to Improve Patient Response

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Overriding the Immune System’s Brakes without Crashing

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There are now many types of anti-cancer drugs that target the immune system, including those that override the immune system’s natural regulatory processes. These processes function as the brakes on the immune system. The FDA-approved immune checkpoint inhibitors are Keytruda (pembrolizumab), Opdivo (nivolumab), Tecentriq (atezolizumab), and Yervoy (ipilimumab). Several investigational drugs [MK-4166, GWN323, MS-986156, INCAGN01876, … Read moreOverriding the Immune System’s Brakes without Crashing

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Fighting Cancer with the Immune System: Lessons from CAR T Cell Therapy

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The Promise of CAR T Cell Therapy Many strategies that train the immune system to recognize and attack cancer are in development or undergoing clinical trials (1). However, these strategies have the potential to cause life-threatening consequences, as evidenced by the latest report of the death of another patient receiving CAR T cell therapy (2). CAR … Read moreFighting Cancer with the Immune System: Lessons from CAR T Cell Therapy

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